2. ---------------------
  3. * Requirements and notes
  4. * Optional server requirements
  5. * Installation
  6. * Building and customizing your site
  7. * Multisite configuration
  8. * More information
  10. ----------------------
  11. Drupal requires:
  12. - A web server. Apache (version 2.0 or greater) is recommended.
  13. - PHP 5.2.4 (or greater) (
  14. - One of the following databases:
  15. - MySQL 5.0.15 (or greater) (
  16. - MariaDB 5.1.44 (or greater) ( MariaDB is a fully
  17. compatible drop-in replacement for MySQL.
  18. - Percona Server 5.1.70 (or greater) ( Percona
  19. Server is a backwards-compatible replacement for MySQL.
  20. - PostgreSQL 8.3 (or greater) (
  21. - SQLite 3.3.7 (or greater) (
  22. For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of
  23. PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements"
  24. ( in the online documentation.
  25. For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using a
  26. variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
  27. ( in the online documentation.
  28. Note that all directories mentioned in this document are always relative to the
  29. directory of your Drupal installation, and commands are meant to be run from
  30. this directory (except for the initial commands that create that directory).
  32. ----------------------------
  33. - If you want to use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you
  34. will need the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess
  35. files. For Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Clean URLs with IIS"
  36. ( in the online documentation.
  37. - If you plan to use XML-based services such as RSS aggregation, you will need
  38. PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default on most PHP
  39. installations.
  40. - To serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files on an Apache web server, you will
  41. need the mod_headers module and the ability to use local .htaccess files.
  42. - Some Drupal functionality (e.g., checking whether Drupal and contributed
  43. modules need updates, RSS aggregation, etc.) require that the web server be
  44. able to go out to the web and download information. If you want to use this
  45. functionality, you need to verify that your hosting provider or server
  46. configuration allows the web server to initiate outbound connections. Most web
  47. hosting setups allow this.
  49. ------------
  50. 1. Download and extract Drupal.
  51. You can obtain the latest Drupal release from -- the files
  52. are available in .tar.gz and .zip formats and can be extracted using most
  53. compression tools.
  54. To download and extract the files, on a typical Unix/Linux command line, use
  55. the following commands (assuming you want version x.y of Drupal in .tar.gz
  56. format):
  57. wget
  58. tar -zxvf drupal-x.y.tar.gz
  59. This will create a new directory drupal-x.y/ containing all Drupal files and
  60. directories. Then, to move the contents of that directory into a directory
  61. within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory,
  62. continue with this command:
  63. mv drupal-x.y/* drupal-x.y/.htaccess /path/to/your/installation
  64. 2. Optionally, download a translation.
  65. By default, Drupal is installed in English, and further languages may be
  66. installed later. If you prefer to install Drupal in another language
  67. initially:
  68. - Download a translation file for the correct Drupal version and language
  69. from the translation server:
  70. - Place the file into your installation profile's translations directory.
  71. For instance, if you are using the Standard installation profile,
  72. move the .po file into the directory:
  73. profiles/standard/translations/
  74. For detailed instructions, visit
  75. 3. Create the Drupal database.
  76. Because Drupal stores all site information in a database, you must create
  77. this database in order to install Drupal, and grant Drupal certain database
  78. privileges (such as the ability to create tables). For details, consult
  79. INSTALL.mysql.txt, INSTALL.pgsql.txt, or INSTALL.sqlite.txt. You may also
  80. need to consult your web hosting provider for instructions specific to your
  81. web host.
  82. Take note of the username, password, database name, and hostname as you
  83. create the database. You will enter this information during the install.
  84. 4. Run the install script.
  85. To run the install script, point your browser to the base URL of your
  86. website (e.g.,
  87. You will be guided through several screens to set up the database, add the
  88. site maintenance account (the first user, also known as user/1), and provide
  89. basic web site settings.
  90. During installation, several files and directories need to be created, which
  91. the install script will try to do automatically. However, on some hosting
  92. environments, manual steps are required, and the install script will tell
  93. you that it cannot proceed until you fix certain issues. This is normal and
  94. does not indicate a problem with your server.
  95. The most common steps you may need to perform are:
  96. a. Missing files directory.
  97. The install script will attempt to create a file storage directory in
  98. the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the files
  99. directory may be changed after Drupal is installed).
  100. If auto-creation fails, you can make it work by changing permissions on
  101. the sites/default directory so that the web server can create the files
  102. directory within it for you. (If you are creating a multisite
  103. installation, substitute the correct sites directory for sites/default;
  104. see the Multisite Configuration section of this file, below.)
  105. For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can grant everyone
  106. (including the web server) permission to write to the sites/default
  107. directory with this command:
  108. chmod a+w sites/default
  109. Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
  110. Sample command:
  111. chmod go-w sites/default
  112. Alternatively, instead of allowing the web server to create the files
  113. directory for you as described above, you can create it yourself. Sample
  114. commands from a Unix/Linux command line:
  115. mkdir sites/default/files
  116. chmod a+w sites/default/files
  117. b. Missing settings file.
  118. Drupal will try to automatically create a settings.php configuration file,
  119. which is normally in the directory sites/default (to avoid problems when
  120. upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with this file). If auto-creation fails,
  121. you will need to create this file yourself, using the file
  122. sites/default/default.settings.php as a template.
  123. For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can make a copy of the
  124. default.settings.php file with the command:
  125. cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
  126. Next, grant write privileges to the file to everyone (including the web
  127. server) with the command:
  128. chmod a+w sites/default/settings.php
  129. Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
  130. Sample command:
  131. chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
  132. c. Write permissions after install.
  133. The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
  134. the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. If this
  135. fails, you will be notified, and you can do it manually. Sample commands
  136. from a Unix/Linux command line:
  137. chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
  138. chmod go-w sites/default
  139. 5. Verify that the site is working.
  140. When the install script finishes, you will be logged in with the site
  141. maintenance account on a "Welcome" page. If the default Drupal theme is not
  142. displaying properly and links on the page result in "Page Not Found" errors,
  143. you may be experiencing problems with clean URLs. Visit
  144. to troubleshoot.
  145. 6. Change file system storage settings (optional).
  146. The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used to
  147. store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by
  148. Drupal. After installation, you can modify the file system path to store
  149. uploaded files in a different location.
  150. It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
  151. - Your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase (modify
  152. the file system path of each installation to a different directory so that
  153. uploads do not overlap between installations).
  154. - Your site runs on a number of web servers behind a load balancer or reverse
  155. proxy (modify the file system path on each server to point to a shared file
  156. repository).
  157. - You want to restrict access to uploaded files.
  158. To modify the file system path:
  159. a. Ensure that the new location for the path exists and is writable by the
  160. web server. For example, to create a new directory named uploads and grant
  161. write permissions, use the following commands on a Unix/Linux command
  162. line:
  163. mkdir uploads
  164. chmod a+w uploads
  165. b. Navigate to Administration > Configuration > Media > File system, and
  166. enter the desired path. Note that if you want to use private file storage,
  167. you need to first enter the path for private files and save the
  168. configuration, and then change the "Default download method" setting and
  169. save again.
  170. Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
  171. unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
  172. on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
  173. to the new location.
  174. 7. Revoke documentation file permissions (optional).
  175. Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
  176. CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
  177. running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
  178. this optional security measure, from a Unix/Linux command line you can use
  179. the following command:
  180. chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt
  181. Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide all
  182. documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of the
  183. Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
  184. name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.
  185. For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux,
  186. Unix, and Mac file permissions" ( or
  187. "Modifying Windows file permissions" ( in the
  188. online documentation.
  189. 8. Set up independent "cron" maintenance jobs.
  190. Many Drupal modules have tasks that must be run periodically, including the
  191. Search module (building and updating the index used for keyword searching),
  192. the Aggregator module (retrieving feeds from other sites), and the System
  193. module (performing routine maintenance and pruning of database tables). These
  194. tasks are known as "cron maintenance tasks", named after the Unix/Linux
  195. "cron" utility.
  196. When you install Drupal, its built-in cron feature is enabled, which
  197. automatically runs the cron tasks periodically, triggered by people visiting
  198. pages of your site. You can configure the built-in cron feature by navigating
  199. to Administration > Configuration > System > Cron.
  200. It is also possible to run the cron tasks independent of site visits; this is
  201. recommended for most sites. To do this, you will need to set up an automated
  202. process to visit the page cron.php on your site, which executes the cron
  203. tasks.
  204. The URL of the cron.php page requires a "cron key" to protect against
  205. unauthorized access. Your site's cron key is automatically generated during
  206. installation and is specific to your site. The full URL of the page, with the
  207. cron key, is available in the "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the Status
  208. report page at Administration > Reports > Status report.
  209. As an example for how to set up this automated process, you can use the
  210. crontab utility on Unix/Linux systems. The following crontab line uses the
  211. wget command to visit the cron.php page, and runs each hour, on the hour:
  212. 0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1
  213. Replace the text "" in the
  214. example with the full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the
  215. "Status report" page.
  216. More information about cron maintenance tasks is available at
  217., and sample cron shell scripts can be found in the
  218. scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be customized like the
  219. above example, to add your site-specific cron key and domain name.)
  221. ----------------------------------
  222. A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration. To extend
  223. your site, you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds
  224. functionality to Drupal, while a theme changes the look of your site. The core
  225. of Drupal provides several optional modules and themes, and you can download
  226. more at and
  227. Do not mix downloaded or custom modules and themes with Drupal's core modules
  228. and themes. Drupal's modules and themes are located in the top-level modules and
  229. themes directories, while the modules and themes you add to Drupal are normally
  230. placed in the sites/all/modules and sites/all/themes directories. If you run a
  231. multisite installation, you can also place modules and themes in the
  232. site-specific directories -- see the Multisite Configuration section, below.
  233. Never edit Drupal's core modules and themes; instead, use the hooks available in
  234. the Drupal API. To modify the behavior of Drupal, develop a module as described
  235. at To modify the look of Drupal, create a
  236. subtheme as described at, or a completely new
  237. theme as described at
  239. -----------------------
  240. A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with
  241. its own individual configuration.
  242. Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites'
  243. directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file, which specifies
  244. the configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to
  245. copy the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.php' file as appropriate.
  246. The new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration for
  247. could be in 'sites/' (note that 'www.'
  248. should be omitted if users can access your site at
  249. Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and
  250. subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example,,, and
  251. can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The setup
  252. for a configuration such as this would look like the following:
  253. sites/default/settings.php
  254. sites/
  255. sites/
  256. sites/
  257. When searching for a site configuration (for example,
  258. Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the
  259. first configuration it finds:
  260. sites/
  261. sites/
  262. sites/
  263. sites/
  264. sites/
  265. sites/
  266. sites/default/settings.php
  267. If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the
  268. deepest subdomain. For example: could be loaded
  269. from sites/ The port number will be removed according to
  270. the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real
  271. subdomain.
  272. Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in
  273. addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories.
  274. To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes'
  275. directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if
  276. has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be
  277. accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this:
  278. sites/
  279. settings.php
  280. themes/custom_theme
  281. modules/custom_module
  282. NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration
  283. settings, consult
  284. For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multisite
  285. configuration, see step 6 above.
  287. ----------------
  288. - See the online documentation:
  290. - For a list of security announcements, see the "Security advisories" page at
  291. (available as an RSS feed). This page also
  292. describes how to subscribe to these announcements via e-mail.
  293. - For information about the Drupal security process, or to find out how to
  294. report a potential security issue to the Drupal security team, see the
  295. "Security team" page at
  296. - For information about the wide range of available support options, visit
  297. and click on Community and Support in the top or bottom
  298. navigation.